One of the most common reasons for patients to be referred to a Nephrologist (kidney specialist) is for kidney stones.
Kidney stones occur when a solid crystal forms from the salts in urine and builds up in the urinary tract. There are different types of kidney stones and there may different signs and symptoms. The first indication is a back pain below the ribs; patients may pass small gravel-like stones and/or blood in the urine, feel queasy, feel an urgency to urinate.
Kidney stones may be diagnosed through various tests, which may include xray, ct scan or ultrasound.
Most kidney stones will pass themselves. There are various treatments available, including removal of the stone by a urologist. Prevention of further stones involves maintaining good kidney health including drinking plenty of water.